With the world population facing an epidemic of obesity, the concept of fitness and fatness is changing. The strange phenomenon of the obesity paradox needs to be addressed carefully.   According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), about 57% of the world’s population live in a country with more obese than underweight people. This includes
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Researchers find no evidence to suggest that exposure to dogs or farm animals in an infant’s first year of life is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes.   In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers associated with three Swedish universities and their affiliates questioned whether early exposure to dogs and other animals, which carry many
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Delirium is a costly yet preventable, common post-surgical complication in the elderly population. A recent study shows that an intervention program called mHELP greatly reduces cases of delirium post-surgery in older patients.   Delirium, an acutely disturbed state of mind, is considered the most common complication following surgery in the elderly population. Delirium can have
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Doctors sometimes prescribe multiple medications to patients in an attempt to increase the effectiveness of treatment. This study calls into question the use of combination therapy for schizophrenia, showing that they are no more effective than one medication alone.   Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects countless men and women each year. Antipsychotic drugs,
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive autoimmune disease which interrupts the transmission of nerve impulses, impairing both body function and movement.  While this often leads to a decrease in overall physical activity, a recent study found evidence that individuals with MS and an increased risk of falling walked even less each day than did individuals
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A cohort study in Japan investigated the relationship between eating citrus fruits and developing dementia later in life. The authors controlled for a number of confounding factors, and found that the consumption of citrus is linked with lower incidence of dementia.   Neurodegeneration leading to loss of cognitive function, generally referred to as dementia, is
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Recent observational studies suggest that administrating aspirin to patients at high-risk of developing cardiovascular diseases may also reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. A new meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of aspirin with established colorectal cancer screening strategies confirmed that aspirin may be equally effective.   A low daily dose of aspirin is routine
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In a 2017 study, researchers sought to determine the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-delta) cell signaling pathway in exercise-induced improvements in endurance. The researchers found PPAR-delta improves endurance by reducing glucose release and metabolism and increasing fat metabolism in muscle tissue.   Exercise is believed to improve endurance by reducing the extent
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Exercise is linked to a longer, healthier life but the mechanisms are unclear. To determine how exercise and health are linked, Tucker shows in Preventive Medicine that physical activity is associated with longer telomeres, which are linked to reduced cellular aging.   Exercise reduces the risk of many chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, and
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When someone is diagnosed with a serious disease, they often ask how their life and lifespan will be affected.  A recent study by the Mayo Clinic analyzed survival and cause of death for individuals with Parkinson’s disease or Parkinson’s-like symptoms from synucleinopathy as compared to the general population.   Synucleinopathies are neurogenerative diseases associated with
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Diagnosis of mild-cognitive impairment (MCI) and, in many cases, the subsequent incident dementia in the elderly has proven to be difficult with current methods such as cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. An article in JAMA Neurology discusses how a dual-task gait performance paradigm was used successfully as a diagnostic marker of progression to dementia in elderly
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Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease for which new therapeutic strategies are greatly needed. A recent phase III clinical trial investigating the impact of a Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib, in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, provides a convincing proof of concept supporting the efficacy of this compound for induction and maintenance therapy.  
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A leading cause of blindness in adults aged 20 to 74 years in the United States is diabetic retinopathy (DR). To increase early detection and prevent vision loss, a recent study investigated the use of telemedicine for diabetic eye screening for patients in rural areas with type 1 or 2 diabetes.   The number of
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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are life-threatening complications of diabetes. UK and USA guidelines for treating diabetic emergencies have some important differences and further research is needed to define the best approach.   Diabetes is a common and important medical condition in which the body either cannot produce or becomes insensitive to
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A group of researchers followed a woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent laparoscopic islet transplantation. Over the course of 12 months, the woman consistently maintained normal blood glucose levels and establish an independence from exogenous insulin administration.   Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is a disorder characterized by increased levels of glucose in the
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Polyneuropathy is a painful condition, severe enough that, it often leads physicians to make the decision to initiate opioid therapy for pain relief. Gaining insight into the effects of long-term opioid use in patients with polyneuropathy may provide physicians with valuable information that could drive positive change in the management of the condition.   Polyneuropathy
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For over 20 years’ autologous hematopoietic stem cell treatment (AHSCT) has been a therapy for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus; however, the exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Recent clinical research has also been exploring the use of stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes, another autoimmune disease which affects
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Medication overuse headache (MOH) is defined as the worsening of pre-existing headache with overuse of headache medication, and treatment has consisted of abrupt drug withdrawal accompanied by severely unpleasant symptoms. Safe analgesics like steroids and acetaminophen were found to provide no significant benefit compared to placebo when treating withdrawal headache in patients with MOH.  
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Recent research published in JAMA Psychiatry investigated depressive symptoms prior to dementia diagnoses and found no evidence to suggest that depression and dementia are linked.   A team of researchers at the University College London, in England, conducted a study to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptoms and how they relate to later diagnoses of
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