Mental Health

Researchers studied the trends in suicide attempts over the past 15 years and discovered that the greatest risk is found in younger adults with a history of psychiatric disorders. Preventing suicide is a public health and research priority. Suicide attempts are the most powerful known risk factor for completed suicide.  In fact, approximately 18% of
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Researchers determine whether medications for panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder increase the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are not uncommon during pregnancy, with up to 5% and 10% of pregnant women experiencing panic disorder and GAD respectively. Based on registry studies, these disorders have been associated
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Scientists study the brains of young adults with ADHD to determine whether there are significant differences in the ADHD brain that can predict a diagnosis and help in the understanding of symptoms. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder in which symptoms frequently persist into adulthood.  It is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. 
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Transcutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (tONS) may offer a promising migraine prevention alternative for migraine sufferers who do not respond well to preventative drug treatments.   Migraine is a common and debilitating condition.It typically causes a severe pulsating headache on one side of the head which can last from a few hours to several days. A
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A recent study determines the relationship between continued cannabis use on medication adherence and patient outcomes. The researchers investigate whether the poor outcome in psychosis patients using cannabis is due to its negative effect on anti-psychotic medications.   Psychosis is a serious mental condition in which a person has problems in perceiving reality. They may
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A recent clinical study investigated the effect of improvisational music therapy for autism on social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with a spectrum of symptoms and levels of disability. Children with ASD have difficulties communicating and interacting with others and they often display repetitive
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A recent study examined markers of depression in Instagram photographs before and after a clinical diagnosis to determine whether depression can be detected in social media posts. With the ever-increasing use of social media, detecting psychiatric disorders based on a user’s activity is of particular interest in research. The analysis of text posted on social
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Genome-wide association studies for many neurological disorders have limiting factors that cause the inability to draw significant clinical outcomes. Recently, studies have overcome these limitations for three neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease. A number of genome-wide association studies have provided important information on neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, with over
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With increasing awareness of how complex, damaging, and persistent brain injuries can be, researchers have been analyzing and improving the ways we diagnose damage to the brain. New methods of performing CT scans have outperformed previous ways and will be critical in improved treatment and diagnosis of trauma. Terrifying brain injuries seem all too common-
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Leprosy is a worldwide disease. Unfortunately, efforts to eradicate this debilitating illness have stalled. This overview calls for a worldwide coalition towards a zero-case strategy. Leprosy, a bacterial disease, is a major cause of peripheral neuropathy leading to disability. Leprosy remains in over 100 countries and the battle to eliminate this disease has been fought
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There is a strong genetic basis to human autism spectrum disorders, but it has not been confirmed whether human behavioral disorders relate to insect social behaviors and if the similarities reflect common mechanistic roots. A recent ground-breaking study highlights the genetic link between socially unresponsive bees and human behavioral disorders, bringing new context to autism
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Anxiety disorders are prevalent and impairing. A recent article in JAMA summarizes the research so far and lays out the current accepted treatment plan for most anxiety disorders. Everyone worries from time to time, especially when life takes particularly stressful and unexpected turns.  But short-term states and long-term traits of anxiety can manifest much more
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A new study assessed whether increased physical activity could improve mental health and found that meeting the UK physical activity recommendations significantly lowered levels of psychological distress and common mental disorders. Common mental disorders (CMDs) encompass certain types of depression and anxiety that do not meet the criteria for a normal psychiatric diagnosis. Despite not
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Dopaminergic inputs to the ventral striatum are one of the brain mechanisms thought to play a role in major depression. However, a recent study reported no major alterations in these inputs in participants with major depression in a non-learning context. Major depression is a devastating mood disorder with a lifetime prevalence that is higher than
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-known problem in children, adolescents and adults, but the long-term effects of stimulants such as Ritalin during childhood when the brain is still developing remain unclear. A recent study showed that levels of ϒ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the adult prefrontal cortex were decreased in patients who had begun stimulant
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Basal levels of steroid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are not significantly different in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder compared with non-trauma-exposed subjects.   Approximately 10% of individuals exposed to traumatic events develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Symptoms of PTSD include re-experiencing the traumatic event, negative cognitive and mood changes, and hyper-reactivity. To
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Scientists at the Center for Injury Research and Prevention at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia asked the question; “what is the association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and car crashes involving young adult drivers, and does this vary by sex, licensing age, and/or being prescribed ADHD medication?” Car crashes are the leading cause of death
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For those with ADHD, the use of ADHD medication is associated with better performance on higher education entrance tests. This evidence should be considered together with the current list of risks and benefits of ADHD medication to guide clinical practice. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among children and adults alike and can have a negative
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PET scanning revealed elevated translocator protein in several regions comprising the neurocircuitry of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), indicating a pathogenic role for microglia in the neuropathogenesis of OCD. Though several Hollywood stars have been diagnosed with OCD, no one is better remembered for suffering from this debilitating condition than Howard Hughes of ‘The Aviator’. Characterized
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a well-known treatment for tremor related to Parkinson’s disease, but the research surrounding its efficacy with multiple sclerosis tremors remains inconclusive. DBS of two thalamic nuclei was found to significantly decrease tremor severity over the course of 6 months in individuals with multiple sclerosis tremors.   Multiple
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