Cancer

Researchers sought to characterize neurological disorders associated with anti-programmed death antibodies for the treatment of metastatic cancers. One method a tumour may escape destruction by the immune system is to affect the cells that would otherwise destroy it.  For the body to distinguish its own normally-functioning cells from abnormal cells and invaders, normal cells display
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Researchers studied whether nipple-sparing mastectomy was a safe surgical procedure for breast cancer prevention in women with BRCA gene mutations who are at high risk of developing breast cancer. There are many different risks for breast cancer, but one important factor is a family history of the disease. Researchers have discovered that in some families
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Two trials studied the effects of hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women to determine any effects on all-cause mortality and mortality from heart disease or cancer. The United States National Institutes of Health launched the Women’s Health Initiative in 1991 to understand the causes of heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures in
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Researchers determine whether lenalidomide is an effective maintenance therapy for leukemia patients. The first-line treatment for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically chemoimmunotherapy. Patients with a high risk of early disease progression are those with higher levels of residual disease after chemoimmunotherapy and/or those with specific genetic markers. For these patients, maintenance
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A recently published study set out to discover whether an immune signature can be used to provide a reliable prognosis for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Of all lung cancer cases, 85% are attributable to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Many patients with early-stage lung cancer do not
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A recent study investigated gait characteristics in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by the excessive production of immature lymphocytes which are incapable of fighting infections. Although recent advances in chemotherapeutics have increased survival rates to almost 90%, these drugs are often accompanied
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  Olaparib (Lynparza) is a treatment for advanced ovarian cancer in patients carrying inherited mutations in the BRCA gene. A study compares olaparib with standard drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients with inherited BRCA mutation. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, the tumor suppressor genes that code for proteins involved in DNA
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  Comparing the effectiveness of an immunotherapy inhibitor, nivolumab, with platinum-based chemotherapy may help oncologists determine which drug is most beneficial as a first line treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. As its name suggests, platinum-based chemotherapy contains complexes of the metal platinum, which can bring along an entourage of symptoms.
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According to recent studies, ductal carcinoma in situ, a non-invasive benign tumour of the breast, is over-diagnosed and therefore overtreated. An unfortunate reaction to overtreatment of benign breast tumours might be a decrease of the active surveillance of the breast tissue which causes patients to be underdiagnosed for invasive ductal carcinoma. Tumours can either be
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The CRISPR-Cas9 screening method has identified the genes that play a role in the body’s immune response to tumors. This important discovery will help to improve the results of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer cells are known to often contain genetic mutations. However, other non-cancerous cells within the body may also contain mutations which can either hinder
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Recent clinical trials have provided evidence that treating metastatic prostate cancer with a combination of abiraterone and androgen-depravation therapy (ADT) significantly improves the survival rate of patients with metastatic or locally advanced prostate cancer.   Approximately one in seven men worldwide are diagnosed with prostate cancer at least once in their life, and so ensuring
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Over 50 years ago scientists accidentally discovered tamoxifen, the standard adjuvant treatment used for the past three decades to reduce the risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients. However, with advances in research comes new therapeutics and the question arises whether tamoxifen is still the best drug available to help reduce breast cancer recurrence? Tamoxifen
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A recent study reports that a high-fiber diet during radiation therapy for pelvic cancer helps reduce gastrointestinal radiation toxicity both immediately and over the long term compared to habitual fiber intake. This finding contravenes existing practice that recommends low-fiber diets to people undergoing pelvic radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat abdominal and
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An analysis of germline mutation status predicting therapy response results from the GeparSixto trial looked into the efficacy of the treatment regimen for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients carrying a germline mutation demonstrate better pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates under the anthracycline, taxane, and bevacizumab regimen.
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A group of researchers compared the biosimilar monoclonal antibody CT-P10 to the currently used rituximab in the treatment of follicular lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a blood cancer characterized by the aberrant growth and multiplication of white blood cells (lymphocytes). Cancerous lymphocytes can migrate to and from tumors in different parts of the body, including
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A recent study reports an association between low levels of vitamin A (Retinol), vitamin E and retinol binding protein (RBP4) and a poor prognosis for renal cell carcinoma.   Renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent kidney cancer in adults, and it refers to various tumors in the nephron tissue (kidney tubular structures mediating transport
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First-line treatments for blood cancers include chemotherapy. Subsequent treatments may include stem cell therapy as a final line of defense. However, as discussed in a recent article in Science Health, the effects of this treatment can be just as devastating as the cancer in approximately 50% of patients.   Stem cell therapy is a two-step
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A recent study tests a multi-gene classifier, an ultralow-risk threshold, to determine if it can identify indolent tumours and breast cancer risk. Breast cancer is a life-threatening medical condition resulting in a wide range of outcomes. Recurrence of a tumour following initial diagnosis can range from a few months to several years. Molecular profiling is
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Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor used in the treatment of melanoma. In an article published in JAMA Oncology, a group of researchers analyzed data from phase 3 clinical trials assessing the effects of nivolumab on patients with advanced melanoma treated beyond disease progression.   Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody which functions as an
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Mammography screening is touted as the best tool to detect early-stage breast cancer. A recent study looked at American women’s awareness of the benefits and risks associated with mammograms and whether these would influence their decision to undergo mammography. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Early-stage breast cancer can
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